The main products stocked and sold by pharmahouses are various kinds of drugs and pharmaceutical products. These products are split up into groups that require a doctor’s prescription and other groups of over-the-counter medicines that can be obtained without a prescriptions by whoever wants them. Pharmacists employed at a pharmahouse can be consulted about possible health concerns of nonprescription medications and the possible interaction with other drugs that are being taken, whether with prescription or not. In addition to chemicals that are designed to prevent or cure a disorder, pharmahouses also offer aid tools (bandages, insect protection, medical tests), medical devices (cholesterol meters, thermometers), and different vitamins and minerals, as well as care and beauty products and toiletries (toothpaste, deodorants, shampoos, conditioners etc.).

Pharmahouses’ product line

There is an immense number and types of pharmaceutical medications. They might be taken orally as tablets, capsules, powders, and sprays, injected, or directly applied to the affected area. Here is some more information about the variety and use of some of them and the conditions they might be needed for:

  • Allergies

    An allergy reaction is a result of the response of the immune system to a foreign substance that is usually not considered harmful. These foreign substances, recognized by the immune system as invaders, are called allergens. They can be certain foods, pollen, animal dander, insect stings, mold, medications, latex, etc. The immune system overreacts to the allergens by producing Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. These antibodies travel to cells that release histamine and other chemicals, causing an allergic reaction. There is no cure for allergies, but not taking them seriously might lead to complications. The severity of allergies varies from person to person, and can range from minor irritation to anaphylaxis – a life-threatening emergency. There are many safe prescription and over-the-counter medications available to relieve annoying symptoms such as congestion or itchy nose. These allergy medications include antihistamines, decongestants, nasal corticosteroids, corticosteroid creams/ointments, mast cell stabilizers, immunotherapy or epinephrine.


    Antihistamines can be taken as pills, liquid, nasal spray, or eye drops. They block histamine which causes allergic swelling and have a calming effect on sneezing, runny nose, and hives. Over-the-counter antihistamine eye drops treat red itchy eyes, while nasal sprays are recommended for seasonal and indoor allergies.


    Decongestants can be found in the form of pills, liquids, nasal spray, or eye drops. They relieve congestion and are often prescribed along with antihistamines. They reduce stiffness by shrinking swollen membranes in the nose. However, using nasal spray and eye drops for a longer period than a few days at a time might worsen the symptoms. Pills and liquid decongestants might be taken longer safely.

    Nasal corticosteroids

    Nasal corticosteroids are nose sprays. They are considered to be the most effective medicines for nasal allergies. They belong to the group of medicines known as steroids. They are sprayed or inhaled into the nose to reduce swelling which causes a study and itchy nose or hay fever. Moreover, they prevent nasal polyps from rowing back after they have been surgically removed.

    Corticosteroid creams/ointments

    Corticosteroid creams/ointments are an effective medicine against allergic reactions, eczema and dermatitis. The medicine is applied directly to the skin and treats rashes and inflammation. It should be applied very thinly to minimize the amount absorbed through the skin into the body. If the rash does not go away after using this cream for a week, it is necessary to get a medical appointment to have that issue looked at by a doctor.

    Mast cell stabilizers

    Mast cell stabilizers are distributed in the form of eye drops or nose sprays. They keep the body from releasing histamine and thus calm itchy, watery eyes or an itchy and runny nose, and some of these drugs have also an anti-inflammatory effect. Mast cell stabilizers must be taken two to four times a day and normally take more time to become effective, from two to six weeks.


    Immunotherapy can be taken as allergy shots or pills under the tongue, gradually increasing the ability to tolerate allergens. The difference between immunotherapy and other allergy medications is that the function of the former is to control allergy symptoms and once the treatment is over, the symptoms return shortly afterwards. Immunotherapy can potentially lead to lasting remission of allergy symptoms, and it might help a lot to prevent development of asthma and new allergies.


    Epinephrine is obtained in a pre-measured and self-injectable device. It normally treats very severe life-threatening allergic reactions. Epinephrine must be injected into the body within minutes of the first sign of serious allergic reactions. It works by relaxing the muscles in the airways and tightening the blood vessels. It is used for allergic reactions to food, stinging insects, latex, medicines or other causes.

  • Sedatives/sleeping pills/tranquilizers

    Sedatives are medications that ease agitation and induce sleep. Some of them look like multi-colored tablets and capsules, while others can be found in liquid form. They reduce irritability or excitement by modulating signals within the central nervous system. Sedatives are mostly prescribed to patients with anxiety, stress reactions, and panic attacks. If sedatives are accidentally misused or combined with other substances, there is a risk of depressing important signals that are necessary to maintain heart and lung function. For example, carelessly combining sedatives with alcohol could have fatal consequences. They can also lead to dependence or addiction. That’s why sedatives should be used under supervision and only when there is a real necessity. The most popular types are barbiturates and benzodiazepines.

  • Cold remedies

    Unfortunately, there is no cure for a cold, but there are some things that could be done to relieve it. Apart from drinking many fluids and getting plenty of rest, there are different medicines that can help sick people deal with symptoms such as sore throat, coughing, sneezing, stuffiness, and fever. A cold or a seasonal flu can have a range of symptoms, so it is important to be familiar with the most common ingredients in cough, cold, and flu remedies in order to choose the most appropriate medication that would treat only the existing symptoms. Treatments are available in a range of forms, including syrups, powder, pills, capsules, and sprays. Many of them contain the same ingredients, but some of them are more preferred than others. Below, you will be provided with some useful information about decongestants, antihistamines, expectorants, pain relievers (fever reducers), and lozenges.

  • Solutions for hair loss diseases and disorders

    Everyone can experience hair loss at some point in one’s life. Most hair disorders are not considered serious, but they can have negative influence on people’s overall appearance and consequently lower their self-esteem. Hair problems provoke more distress than any other severe skin conditions and this is why they should not be underestimated. The most common hair diseases are androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, alopecia universalis, telogen effluvium, and tinea capitis. These hair conditions lead to partial or complete hair loss. Unfortunately, not all hair disorders have medical treatments, but there are effective alternatives available for some types of hair loss which help reverse or at least slow down the process. The most popular forms of treatment recommended are Finasteride and Minoxidil.

  • Topical pain relief and treatment for skin conditions

    The skin is the largest organ in the human body and its functions include protection, excretion, and heat regulation. Skin diseases vary in symptoms and severity. They can be temporary or permanent and might cause pain or be painless. Some of them may be genetic, while others may be a result of environmental or other factors. Some of the most common skin conditions are eczema, dermatitis, acne, psoriasis, and rosacea. Eczema and dermatitis are inflammatory skin disorders, while acne is one of the worst nightmares of adolescents and some adults. Psoriasis is a skin disease which makes skin cells stop growing and lead to inflamed patches or ‘plaques’. All these skin conditions and many other can be treated with topical steroids. Topical treatments have anti-inflammatory effect and can suppress the immune response. The active ingredients in topical preparations are combined with inactive ingredients (known as vehicles). The consistency of the products depend on the inactive ingredients. They are chosen according to the area of the body they will be applied to and the type of skin disorder. Here is more about the topical medications: ointments, creams, lotions, solutions, gels, and powders.

  • Treatments of nails diseases and disorders

    Fingernails and toenails are made up of layers of keratin which can also be found in nails and skin. Nails provide support and protection for the tissues of the toes and fingers. Healthy nails are smooth and consistent in color. Nail problems affect people of all ages. They can be a result of an infection, inflammatory or metabolic conditions, and rarely of malignances and pigment disturbances. Nail disorders that should be treated include bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, ingrown nails, tumors, and warts. Treatment of nail disorders is not always easy. Over-the-counter products are not considered to be the most reliable way to treat nail infections. Topical treatment might be ineffective because the nail plate is not penetrated by topical medications and the nail matrix is situated under the proximal nail fold. If bothered by the appearance of a nail change, making a medical appointment to have it looked at is not a bad idea. Apart from locally applied medications, doctors also may prescribe oral drugs. Some of them are oral antifungal drugs, medicated nail lacquer, and nail softening kits.

  • Relief for ear aches and infections

    Ear pain and infections are very common in toddlers and children, but they can also happen to adults. The main reason why children are more likely to develop ear infections is that they have smaller and more horizontal tubes than adults and their ears do not drain fluid as well as adults’ ears do. An earache might affect one or both ears, but it most often occurs in just one ear. Ear infections are mostly caused by a cold or an upper respiratory infection. Children suffer from ear infections approximately two out of three times they have a cold. Furthermore, people who smoke or are around a lot of smoke are more prone to ear infections. There are three types of ear infection defined according to where they occur in the ear canal. An ear infection may take place in the inner ear (labyrinthitis), middle ear (otitis media), the outer ear (swimmer’s ear), or a ruptured eardrum (tympanic membrane perforation that separates the ear canal from the middle ear). The symptoms may include discomfort in the ear, dull, sharp, or burning pain. The medications used to treat ear condition include Pseudoephedrine, Neomycin-Polymyxin-Hydrocort Otic, and Fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

  • Common heart disease drugs

    Heart disease has caused most deaths in many countries and is considered a major cause of disability, so it should be approached as an issue and taken care of very seriously. Heart disease is an umbrella term encompassing a broad range of heart conditions, and there are different treatment options for each. Heart conditions might affect the arteries (coronary heart disease), the heart muscle (hypertension), or the heart valves which could cause a heart attack. Patients often experience symptoms such as chest pain, heart palpitations, unusual breathlessness and other, but some do not have any symptoms before they are diagnosed. It is important to be aware of the medications, follow the labels, and recognize any possible side effects. Apart from having a healthy lifestyle, heart disease might also be treated with Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Cholesterol-lowering drugs (Statins), and Nitrates.

  • Treatments to digestive problems

    The digestive system is mainly made up of the gastrointestinal tract, also called the GI tract or digestive tract. The organs the GI tract consists of are esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. The digestive system breaks down food and liquids into small parts (nutrients) which the body absorbs and uses as energy and building blocks for cells. Everyone has experienced digestive problems at least a few times in their life. Digestive problems are any problems that are an obstacle for the normal functioning of the GI track. Indigestion and heartburn, affecting the stomach, are common problems. Inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome are intestine disorders that can impair one’s quality of life. Some problems can be relieved with over-the-counter medications, while prescription drugs are needed for others. Some of types of medicines for digestive problems are acid reducers, antacids, antidiarrheals, and laxatives.

  • Treatment options for gallbladder diseases

    The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac found underneath the liver. Its main function is to store bile produced by the liver and release it into the small intestine to help the process of breaking down food, especially fatty foods. Normally, the gallbladder is not a subject of health concern, but some people might happen to be affected by gallbladder conditions. Common gallbladder disorders include biliary colic, dysfunctional gallbladder or chronic gallbladder disease, gallstones (cholelithiasis), inflamed gallbladder (cholecystitis), and sclerosing cholangitis. The methods to deal with gallbladder problems vary from a healthy lifestyle and a special diet, through taking some drugs, to in the most serious cases, its removal through surgical procedures. Apart from antibiotics, common pain relievers, and other Cholesterol-lowering drugs (described above in the context of heart diseases), the most popular medication for certain gallbladder stones is Ursodiol (ursodeoxycholic acid or UDCA).

  • Liver diseases/Hepatitis

    The liver is the largest and most complex organ in the body, located in the upper right hand-side of the abdomen. It performs numerous crucial tasks related to the conversion of food to energy (metabolism). Liver stores and transports most of the nutrients that are absorbed by the intestine and removes toxins and impurities, such as alcohol, medicines, and potentially harmful chemicals, from the blood through a specialized filtering system. The fat-soluble vitamins D and E are also stored in the liver. Liver diseases involve damage to the liver that does not allow it to function normally. These are very dangerous, as if there is a problem affecting the processes of detoxification and metabolism, it has negative consequences for the entire body. Treating liver disease depends much on whether the disease is acute or chronic and the type of condition the patient has been diagnosed with. Cholesterol lowering medications and antihistamines are prescribed for certain conditions. This section focuses on hepatitis of all liver diseases and provides information about the beneficial medicines for viral hepatitis infection, namely antiviral drugs and synthetic interferon.

  • Kidney diseases and relevant treatment

    Kidneys are a pair of internal organs located at the bottom of the rib cage, on each side of the spine. They are vital to having a healthy body. Inside each kidney there are approximately a million tiny structures called nephrons. Their function is to filter blood and remove unnecessary substances (excess water and other impurities and toxins) which become urine. This is how they regulate pH, salt, and potassium levels. Furthermore, kidneys produce hormones that regulate blood pressure and control the production of red blood cells. Many people are affected by kidney diseases which often attack the nephrons and are an obstacle for kidneys to perform their functions and remove wastes. For example, chronic kidney disease slowly damages the nephrons. Other kidney conditions include kidney stones, glomerulonephritis, cysts, and infections. Treatment methods depend on the underlying cause, some types of kidney diseases might be treated, while there is no cure for others. It is important to treat kidney conditions, as they can increase the risk for heart disease and stroke. Some drugs that bring relief or lead to improvement are diuretics, erythropoietin-stimulating agents, and phosphate (phosphorous) blinders.

  • Bladder discomfort, urinary problems and best medications

    The urinary bladder is an essential part of the urinary system of the human body, along with other crucial organs like kidneys, ureters, sphincter muscles, and urethra. The bladder is a balloon shaped organ located above and behind the pubic bone. It is a muscular sac which serves to store urine and controls urination. A healthy bladder accumulates urine until it eventually reaches its capacity and sends signals to the brain that it must be emptied. The functions of the bladder might be affected by a number of diseases with a different level of complexity and seriousness. A bladder condition can turn a routine bodily function into a major lifestyle disruption and cause great discomfort. The four most common disorders treated are overactive bladder, urinary inconsistence, urinary retention, and interstitial cystitis. They can lead to uncontrollable urination or inability to fully empty the bladder and also a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder and pelvis. Some of the medicines used to treat bladder problems are anticholinergics, mirabegron, imipramine, vaginal estrogen, and pentosan polysulfate sodium (Elmiron).

  • Medication therapy for prostate diseases

    The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that only appears in men. It is located between the bladder and the penis, right in front of the rectum. Prostate functions to produce a thick white fluid that when mixed with sperm helps make semen. It also produces a special protein called prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) to turn semen into liquid. Prostate contracts during ejaculation and closes off the opening between the bladder and urethra, thus pushing semen through at speed. Prostate gland can slowly grow with aging and if it gets too large it might cause problems. Older men are more likely to have complaints. The most common types of prostate disorders are inflammation (prostatitis), non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate, and prostate cancer. Approximately 25% of men aged 55 years and over have a prostate condition. This is why men in their 50s or 60s should regularly have their prostate gland checked. There are certain medical products offered in pharmahouses which when prescribed by doctors can bring relief and treat some prostate conditions. The most commonly used of these are: alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductanse inhibitors.

  • Rheumatism/Rheumatoid disorders and modern ways of treatment

    The term rheumatism is used to designate a number of rheumatic diseases affecting the connecting or supporting parts of the human body – joints, ligaments, bones, and muscles. Most of these problems occur when the body tissues are targeted by the immune system. It is believed that rheumatism might either be influenced by genetics or by external factors including cigarette smoke and pollution. Rheumatism might also result from damage to cartilage, as in the case of osteoarthritis. Nowadays patients can be diagnosed with over 200 rheumatoid disorders. There are many forms of arthritis that particularly cause pain and inflammation to the joints. There are also conditions such as lupus, Sjogren’s syndrome, gout, and scleroderma. Rheumatism has consequences for other organs, and people suffering from the most severe rheumatoid conditions may experience great pain and disability. It is very important to obtain a specific diagnosis and a strict treatment plan by a rheumatologist. Apart from various helpful exercises, patients are also likely to be prescribed medicines that treat symptoms or slow or prevent the progression of their disease. Rheumatoid disorders are commonly treated with non-narcotic and narcotic analgesics, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS), and biologic response modifiers (Biologics).

  • Diabetes

    People diagnosed with diabetes have very high blood glucose, or blood sugar levels. This condition comes as a result of the inability of the body to make enough insulin to keep the blood sugar levels normal. The hormone insulin is crucial for conversion of the sugar into energy. There are two different forms of diabetes, known as type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In the case of type 1 diabetes the pancreas no longer makes insulin naturally, as the immune system mistakenly attacks itself and destroys beta cells. Patients having type 1 diabetes need to take insulin several times a days, mostly with meals. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type and occurs when the body makes insulin, but does not use it properly. This is called insulin resistance. Along with healthy food choices and physical activity, medications can help diabetics manage the disease. Medicines vary according to the type of diabetes and how well they control blood glucose levels. They may include diabetes pills or injections under the skin. Commonly used diabetes drugs are biguanide (metformin), sulfonylureas, pramlintide, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs), and sodium glucose transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors.

    Biguanide (Metformin)

    Biguanide is an oral medicine, often one of the first prescribed to a patient who has been newly diagnosed with diabetes. Mainly used for type 2 diabetes, the most common type of biguanide is metformin. Metformin lowers blood sugar levels by reducing the amount of glucose made by the liver. Additionally, it makes the body more sensitive to insulin and helps the muscle cells absorb more glucose. Metformin can be found as an immediate release tablet, an extended release tablet, and a solution. The doctor may prescribe biguanide in combination with other medicines to achieve blood glucose control. Metformin should not be taken by patients who have kidney problems, as it might worsen them.


    Sulfonylureas are among the oldest medications still used today to treat type 2 diabetes. In order to be effective, it is important for this kind of medicines to be combined with a healthy lifestyle including a special diet and exercises. It reduces the risk of developing serious complications such as heart disease, kidney conditions, nerve damage, or eye problems. Sulfonylureas stimulate the pancreas to release a larger amount of insulin with the beta cells, which lowers glucose levels. They also help insulin to work more effectively. They are taken once or twice a day with or before meals. If patients are prescribed sulfonylureas, it is important to not skip meals, because that might cause hypoglycemia (too low glucose levels).


    Pramlintide is an injectable medication, approved for the treatment of insulin-using people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is a synthetic analogue of the hormone amylin, secreted by the beta cells in response to increased blood sugar levels. In the case of type 1 and type 2 diabetes the amylin naturally produced by the body is either not enough or absent. The lack of amylin makes the glucose from food enter the bloodstream faster than usual, which leads to increased glucose levels. Pramlintide reduces the rise in blood glucose after meals by slowing the speed with which food leaves the stomach and suppressing the secretion of glucagon. It might decrease appetite and cause weight loss in some people. It is a suitable medicine for adults who struggle to achieve control of their glucose levels when using intensive insulin therapy. Pramlintide is measured in micrograms and can be injected under the skin or in the stomach area. This medicine should not be taken by people with hypoglycemia unawareness or gastroparesis.

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs)

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are pills prescribed for patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. In particular, there are two kinds of medicines that belong to that class: acarbose and miglitol. They were produced to keep the blood glucose levels from going up after meals. AGIs slow down digestion by blocking enzymes in the small intestine that function to break down carbohydrates and as a result reducing the rise in glucose levels. The benefit of AGIs is that they do not increase the chance of weight gain. The pills are usually taken three times a day with the first bite of a meal. There are some side effects which gradually fade away when the therapy begins with small doses which slowly increase with time. It is not suitable for people with certain intestine conditions.

    Sodium glucose transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors

    Sodium glucose transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors are a new class of diabetic oral medications, available in pharmahouses for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They reduce the absorbed amount of glucose in the kidneys by blocking the sodium-glucose proteins. The excess glucose is expelled through urination. This is how SGLT 2 inhibitors do not allow reabsorption and lead to decreased blood glucose levels. When combined with a healthy diet and exercises, they can improve glycemic control by increasing the insulin sensitivity and positively affecting the uptake of glucose in muscle cells. Furthermore, there is evidence that they show cardiac benefits for diabetics. They are taken once a day with or without food. However, there is a higher chance of dehydration and genital and urinary tract infections because of the growth of urinary glucose.

  • Smoking cessation solutions

    Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. Many smokers become addicted to nicotine in cigarettes and other tobacco products and then quitting turns into a great and hardly achievable challenge despite the awareness that tobacco increases the risk of numerous serious health issues. Cigarettes are responsible for many cases of coronary heart disease, stroke, breathing problems, lung cancer or cancer in other parts of the body. They have been proven to cause a great number of deaths every year. Quitting at any age is positive for people’s health and once it is done, the body starts recovering and much further damage could be avoided. It is never an easy step to take, but fortunately, nowadays there are many prescriptions or over-the-counter medicines at pharmahouses that can help smokers temporarily replace the nicotine, cope with the cravings, and withdraw symptoms. Some of the most widespread medicines include nicotine patch, gum, lozenges, nicotine inhaler, bupropion, and varenicline.

  • Sexual health

    Sexual health is the state of physical, emotional, and social well-being related to sexuality. Sexually healthy people are those able to have satisfying and safe sexual experiences. However, some adults can happen to face sexual difficulties and disorders which become an obstacle for them to experience sexual intimacy and pleasure. Sexual problems might begin early in a person’s life, gradually develop with time, or occur suddenly. The good news is that many sexual disorders respond to treatment and there are many different ways to deal with them. The most common problem among men is erectile dysfunction (impotence), associated with the inability to attain erection. The chance of experiencing a form of erectile dysfunction is higher for men over 40, but with a personalized regimen and appropriate medicines, they can manage this condition and improve their sexual life. The sexual issues that women are most frequently affected by include painful intercourse, inability to become aroused, and hypoactive sexual desire. Fortunately, pharmahouses offer medical solutions for these problems as well. Some of the most popular drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction in men are sildenafil (Viagra), testosterone, alprostadil, while some of the medications approved specifically for women are osphena (ospemifene), and flibanserin.